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Biochimie. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S0300-9084(19)30339-6. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2019.11.016. [Epub ahead of print]

A twist of FATe: Lipid droplets and inflammatory lipid mediators.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia; Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia. Electronic address: eva.jarc@ijs.si.
2
Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia. Electronic address: toni.petan@ijs.si.

Abstract

Lipid droplets are fat storage organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. They consist of a neutral lipid core containing mostly triglycerides and sterol esters and covered by a monolayer of phospholipids, wherein numerous proteins are embedded. In the cell, lipid droplets have a dynamic life cycle, rapidly altering their size, location, lipid and protein composition in response to environmental stimuli and cell state. Lipid droplets are primarily involved in the coordination of lipid metabolism with cellular requirements for energy production, membrane homeostasis and cell growth. However, they are also directly or indirectly engaged in signalling pathways. On the one hand, lipid droplets sequester lipids and proteins thereby limiting their availability for participation in signalling pathways. On the other hand, the lipolytic machinery provides a highly regulated, on-demand source of signalling lipids: lipids derived from their neutral lipid core, or the phospholipid monolayer, directly act as signalling mediators or are converted into ones. In fact, emerging studies suggest that these organelles are essential for various cellular stress response mechanisms, including inflammation and immunity, acting as hubs that integrate metabolic and inflammatory processes. Here, we discuss the ways in which lipid droplets regulate the availability of fatty acids for the activation of signalling pathways and for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators. We focus in particular on recent discoveries in immune cells and adipose tissue that have revealed an intricate relationship between lipid droplets and inflammatory signalling and may also be relevant for other tissues and various human diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Eicosanoids; Inflammation; Lipase; Lipid droplets; Phospholipase; Resolvins

PMID:
31786231
DOI:
10.1016/j.biochi.2019.11.016
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