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Dent Mater. 2019 Nov 27. pii: S0109-5641(19)30915-7. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Remineralization effectiveness of the PAMAM dendrimer with different terminal groups on artificial initial enamel caries in vitro.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
2
Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
3
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address: kunnengliang@163.com.
4
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address: jiyaoliscu@163.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Disruption of the demineralization-remineralization balance could trigger the development of dental caries, making it challenging for enamel to "self-heal". Thus, extrinsic assistance is needed to restore enamel lesions and stop undermining progression. The aim of this study was to investigate enamel remineralization in a simulated oral environment via poly (amino amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers quantitatively.

METHODS:

Bovine enamel specimens were shaken in demineralization solution (pH 4.5, 37°C, 50rpm/min) for 72h to create initial enamel carious lesions. The subsurface-demineralized specimens were then divided into four groups: enamel treated with PAMAM-NH2, enamel treated with PAMAM-COOH, enamel treated with PAMAM-OH, and enamel treated with deionized water. The treated specimens underwent subsequent 12-day pH cycling. Enamel blocks were analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR), surface microhardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after demineralization and pH cycling.

RESULTS:

Groups treated with PAMAM dendrimers showed lower lesion depth and less mineral loss, attained more vertical-section surface microhardness recovery, and adsorbed more mineral deposits (p<0.05). The enamel lesion remineralization values of PAMAM-NH2, PAMAM-COOH, and PAMAM-OH groups were 76.42±3.32%, 60.07±5.92% and 54.52±7.81%, respectively.

SIGNIFICANCE:

In conclusion, PAMAM with different terminal groups could induce enamel remineralization, among which PAMAM-NH2 showed the most prominent competence, followed by PAMAM-COOH and PAMAM-OH, in that order.

KEYWORDS:

Enamel; PAMAM dendrimers; Quantitative measurement; Remineralization; Subsurface demineralization; TMR

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