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Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020 Feb;62(2):178-191. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14407. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

The expanding spectrum of movement disorders in genetic epilepsies.

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Molecular Neurosciences, Developmental Neurosciences Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
Department of Neurology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.
Department of Human Neuroscience, Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Department of Paediatric Neurology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, UK.
Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.


An ever-increasing number of neurogenetic conditions presenting with both epilepsy and atypical movements are now recognized. These disorders within the 'genetic epilepsy-dyskinesia' spectrum are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Increased clinical awareness is therefore necessary for a rational diagnostic approach. Furthermore, careful interpretation of genetic results is key to establishing the correct diagnosis and initiating disease-specific management strategies in a timely fashion. In this review we describe the spectrum of movement disorders associated with genetically determined epilepsies. We also propose diagnostic strategies and putative pathogenic mechanisms causing these complex syndromes associated with both seizures and atypical motor control. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Implicated genes encode proteins with very diverse functions. Pathophysiological mechanisms by which epilepsy and movement disorder phenotypes manifest are often not clear. Early diagnosis of treatable disorders is essential and next generation sequencing may be required.


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