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Molecules. 2019 Nov 27;24(23). pii: E4340. doi: 10.3390/molecules24234340.

Synthesis and Comparative Structure-Activity Study of Carbohydrate-Based Phenolic Compounds as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors and Antioxidants.

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School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, 7-7-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8555, Japan.


Twenty-one natural and unnatural phenolic compounds containing a carbohydrate moiety were synthesized and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidative activity. Varying the position of the galloyl unit on the 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) core resulted in changes in the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and notably, particularly strong activity was demonstrated when the galloyl unit was present at the C-2 position. Furthermore, increasing the number of the galloyl units significantly affected the α-glucosidase inhibition, and 2,3,4,6-tetra-galloyl-1,5-AG (54) and 2,3,4,6-tetra-galloyl-d-glucopyranose (61) exhibited excellent activities, which were more than 13-fold higher than the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of acertannin (37). Moreover, a comparative structure-activity study suggested that a hemiacetal hydroxyl functionality in the carbohydrate core and a biaryl bond of the 4,6-O-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) group, which are components of ellagitannins including tellimagrandin I, are not necessary for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Lastly, the antioxidant activity increased proportionally with the number of galloyl units.


1,5-AG; acertannin; antioxidant; ginnalin; maplexin; polyphenol; tellimagrandin I; α-glucosidase

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