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Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2019;92:31-40. doi: 10.1159/000499545. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Prenatal Nutrition Education: Updates and Best Practices for Optimal Diet and Weight Gain during Pregnancy.

Author information

1
Department of Family, Community, and Mental Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA, asiegariz@umass.edu.
2
Department of Public Health Sciences and Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA, asiegariz@umass.edu.
3
Department of Family, Community, and Mental Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Abstract

Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in the course of pregnancy and in the health of the mother and child at birth and beyond. While evidence in support of following specific dietary patterns during pregnancy for an optimal outcome is weak, due to the many methodological limitations of previous studies, there are other guidelines that women should follow. These guidelines include, the healthy dietary patterns included in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and other global guidelines. Key characteristics of these patterns include higher intakes of fish and seafood, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts and seeds, legumes, and vegetable oils. Additionally, maternal weight status, in particular a high BMI (≥30) prior to conception itself, is strongly associated with many adverse birth outcomes. Current gestational weight gain guidelines are dependent on a woman's starting weight, and intervention studies that have been successful in helping women gain within the target require frequent, high intensity diet counseling. Intervention studies conducted in overweight and obese women show greater heterogeneity in success, but it seems prudent to provide counseling to these women even through the inter-conceptional period to help mitigate pregnancy complications and child outcomes associated with a high BMI in future pregnancies.

PMID:
31779005
DOI:
10.1159/000499545

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