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Int J Rheum Dis. 2019 Nov 27. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.13756. [Epub ahead of print]

Mindfulness is associated with sleep quality among patients with fibromyalgia.

Author information

1
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Susan and Alan Solomont School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.
3
Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Center for Treatment Comparison and Integrative Analysis, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine & Division of Rheumatology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

AIM:

Previous studies suggest higher mindfulness may be associated with better sleep quality in people with chronic pain conditions. However, the relationship between mindfulness and sleep in fibromyalgia patients, who commonly suffer from sleep problems, remains unstudied. We examined the relationship between mindfulness and sleep, and how this relationship may be mediated by depression, anxiety, and pain interference in fibromyalgia patients.

METHOD:

We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial in fibromyalgia patients. We measured mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire), sleep quality and disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], PROMIS Sleep Disturbance [PROMIS-SD]), pain interference (PROMIS Pain Interference), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Pearson correlations were used to examine associations among mindfulness and sleep quality and disturbance. Mediation analysis was conducted to assess whether pain interference, depression, and anxiety mediated the relationship between mindfulness and sleep.

RESULTS:

A total of 177 patents with fibromyalgia were included (93% female; mean age 52 ± 12 years; body mass index 30 ± 7 kg/m2 ; 59% White). Higher mindfulness was associated with better sleep quality and less sleep disturbance (PSQI r = -0.23, P = .002; PROMIS-SD r = -.24, P = .002) as well as less pain interference (r = -.31, P < .0001), anxiety (r = -.58, P < .001), and depression (r = -0.54, P < .0001). Pain interference, depression, and anxiety mediated the association between mindfulness and sleep quality and disturbance.

CONCLUSION:

Higher mindfulness is associated with better sleep in patients with fibromyalgia, with pain interference, depression, and anxiety mediating this relationship. Longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the potential effect of cultivating mindfulness on sleep in fibromyalgia.

KEYWORDS:

anxiety; chronic pain; depression; fibromyalgia; mediation; sleep

PMID:
31777188
DOI:
10.1111/1756-185X.13756

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