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Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2019 Nov 26. doi: 10.2174/1386207322666191127103122. [Epub ahead of print]

Green synthesis, biological activity evaluation, and molecular docking studies of aryl alkylidene 2, 4-thiazolidinedione and rhodanine derivatives as antimicrobial agents.

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Department of Chemistry, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.



The magic scaffolds rhodanine and thiazolidine are very important heterocyclic compounds in drug design and discovery. their multi-functional and broad spectrum derivatives are antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory. These agents often exhibiting selective toxicity. The goal of this study was molecular docking, green and solvent-free efficient synthesis of a new series of hetero/aromatic substituted rhodanine and thiazolidine analogues and then investigating their antimicrobial activity.


To a mixture of TZD or rhodanine (1 mmol) in the presence of ionic liquid ChCl/urea various aldehyde (1 mmol) was added and After completion of the reaction, obtained crude compound was collected by filtration and products were recrystallized from ethanol. The binding-free energy between All synthesized compounds with 3EEJ protein (C. glabrata enzyme) were obtained by molecular docking studies. These compounds were evaluated using micro-dilution method against (ATCC 6538) and (ATCC 12228) Gram-negative, (ATCC 8739) and (ATCC 9027) as Gram-positive and (ATCC 1012), (ATCC 339), C. (ATCC 1057), (ATCC 503), (ATCC 340) and (ATCC 194) as fungi.


All of the acceptable products were determined by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mas and FT-IR spectroscopy. The binding-free energy between compounds 10a and 10b with 3EEJ protein were found to be -8.08 kcal/mol and -8.15 kcal/mol respectively. These compounds having heteroaromatic ring attached to the TZD or rhodanine core showed excellent antimicrobial activity with MIC values of 0.25-8 µg/mL (compound 10a) and 0.5-16 µg/mL (compound 10b) against the most tested fungi strains, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


A convenient and rapid method has been developed for the synthesis of rhodanine and thiazolidine-2,4-dione (TZD) derivatives as efficient antimicrobial agents using a Deep Eutectic Ionic Liquids (DEILs) choline chloride urea under solvent-free condition. among of all newly synthesized compounds, (Z)-5-((quinoxalin-3-yl) methylene) thiazolidine-2, 4-dione (10a) and (Z)-5- ((quinoxalin-3-yl) methylene)-2-thioxothiazolidin-one (10b) exerted the promising effect and these compounds can be considered to be further probed as inhibitors of cgDHFR enzyme.


Antimicrobial activity; Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs); Molecular docking studies; Rhodanine; Solvent-free conditions; Thiazolidine

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