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Am J Med Genet. 1988 May-Jun;30(1-2):473-83.

Linkage analysis suggests at least two loci for X-linked non-specific mental retardation.

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INSERM U 184, LGME (CNRS), Faculté de Médecine, Strasbourg, France.


Epidemiological studies have suggested that non-specific X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) might be at least as frequent as the fragile X syndrome. The identification of all mutations causing XLMR would thus appear of prime importance. In the absence of other clinical signs the problem of genetic heterogeneity is acute. This can be partly overcome by the analysis of large families. We have been able to perform linkage analysis in 3 such families. The condition in family 1 was described as clinically resembling the fra (X) syndrome by Proops et al [1983]: the kindred includes 7 affected males in 3 sibships. Family 2 from Denmark has affected males in 4 generations; however, several affected relatives in this extended pedigree are deceased. Family 3 from France counts 6 affected males in two sibships. The families were analysed with about 25 X-linked markers. Linkage with markers in Xp22.2-p22.3 was found in family 1: z(theta) = 2.62 at theta = 0.06 for DXS85 (probe 782). Suggestion of linkage was found in family 2 with both the Duchenne muscular dystrophy region (DXS164 in Xp21.2) and with DXS1 (Xq11-q12). In family 3, DXS159 (Xq12-q13) gave a lod score of 2.53 at theta = 0; results were compatible with localisation of the putative XLMR locus in this family proximal to DXYS1 (Xq21). These data suggest that at least two non-specific XLMR loci could exist, one in Xp22 and the other in the q12-q13 region.

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