Send to

Choose Destination
Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Nov 23;7(4). pii: E195. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040195.

Influenza H1 Mosaic Hemagglutinin Vaccine Induces Broad Immunity and Protection in Mice.

Author information

School of Biological Sciences, Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68503, USA.
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.
Division of Biotechnology Review and Research II, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.


Annually, influenza A virus (IAV) infects ~5-10% of adults and 20-30% of children worldwide. The primary resource to protect against infection is by vaccination. However, vaccination only induces strain-specific and transient immunity. Vaccine strategies that induce cross-protective immunity against the broad diversity of IAV are needed. Here we developed and tested a novel mosaic H1 HA immunogen. The mosaic immunogen was optimized in silico to include the most potential B and T cell epitopes (PBTE) across a diverse population of human H1 IAV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the mosaic HA localizes towards the non-pandemic 2009 strains which encompasses the broadest diversity in the H1 IAV population. We compared the mosaic H1 immunogen to wild-type HA immunogens and the commercial inactivated influenza vaccine, Fluzone. When analyzed by ELISA, the mosaic immunogen induced stronger antibody responses against all four diverse H1 HA proteins. When analyzing T cell responses, again the mosaic immunogen induced stronger cellular immunity against all 4 diverse HA strains. Not only was the magnitude of T cell responses strongest in mosaic immunized mice, the number of epitopes recognized was also greater. The mosaic vaccinated mice showed strong cross-protection against challenges with three divergent IAV strains. These data show that the mosaic immunogen induces strong cross-protective immunity and should be investigated further as a universal influenza vaccine.


cross-protection; epitope-based vaccine; influenza; mosaic; t-cell; universal; vaccine

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Loading ...
Support Center