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Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Nov 22;7(4). pii: E193. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040193.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Hemagglutinin Fused with the A Subunit of Type IIb Escherichia coli Heat Labile Enterotoxin Elicited Protective Immunity and Neutralization by Intranasal Immunization in Mouse and Chicken Models.

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Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.
Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.
Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.


Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are classified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as causes of devastating avian diseases. This study aimed to develop type IIb Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTIIb) as novel mucosal adjuvants for mucosal vaccine development. The fusion protein of H5 and LTIIb-A subunit was expressed and purified for mouse and chicken intranasal immunizations. Intranasal immunization with the H5-LTIIb-A fusion protein in mice elicited potent neutralizing antibodies in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, induced stronger Th1 and Th17 cellular responses in spleen and cervical lymph nodes, and improved protection against H5N1 influenza virus challenge. More interestingly, intranasal immunization with the H5-LTIIb-A fusion protein in chickens elicited high titers of IgY, IgA, hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI), and neutralizing antibodies in their antisera. This study employed the novel adjuvants of LTIIb for the development of a new generation of mucosal vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.


H5N1 vaccine; mucosal vaccine; type IIb heat labile enterotoxin

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