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Hippocampus. 2019 Nov 25. doi: 10.1002/hipo.23183. [Epub ahead of print]

Improved identification and differentiation from epileptiform activity of human hippocampal sharp wave ripples during NREM sleep.

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Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California.
Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California.


In rodents, pyramidal cell firing patterns from waking may be replayed in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep during hippocampal sharp wave ripples (HC-SWR). In humans, HC-SWR have only been recorded with electrodes implanted to localize epileptogenicity. Here, we characterize human HC-SWR with rigorous rejection of epileptiform activity, requiring multiple oscillations and coordinated sharp waves. We demonstrated typical SWR in those rare HC recordings which lack interictal epileptiform spikes (IIS) and with no or minimal seizure involvement. These HC-SWR have a similar rate (~12 min-1 on average, variable across NREM stages and anterior/posterior HC) and apparent intra-HC topography (ripple maximum in putative stratum pyramidale, slow wave in radiatum) as rodents, though with lower frequency (~85 Hz compared to ~140 Hz in rodents). Similar SWR are found in HC with IIS, but no significant seizure involvement. These SWR were modulated by behavior, being largely absent (<2 min-1 ) except during NREM sleep in both Stage 2 (~9 min-1 ) and Stage 3 (~15 min-1 ), distinguishing them from IIS. This study quantifies the basic characteristics of a strictly selected sample of SWR recorded in relatively healthy human hippocampi.


humans; intracranial electroencephalography; sleep


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