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J Dairy Sci. 2020 Feb;103(2):1100-1109. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-16863. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Dairy products influence gut hormone secretion and appetite differently: A randomized controlled crossover trial.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo Blindern, Norway 0317.
2
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo Blindern, Norway 0317; Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Nydalen, Norway 0424.
3
TINE SA, Innovation and Marketing, 0187 Oslo, Norway.
4
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, KB 3014, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2100.
5
Research Unit of Biomedicine, and Biocenter of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center, Finland 90014.
6
Research Unit of Biomedicine, and Biocenter of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center, Finland 90014; Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland 60-572.
7
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo Blindern, Norway 0317. Electronic address: smulven@medisin.uio.no.

Abstract

Little is known about how dairy products with different nutrient contents and food matrices affect appetite sensation and gut hormone secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate how appetite sensation and gut hormone secretion in healthy adults are affected by meals with the same amount of fat but from different dairy products. Forty-seven healthy adults (70% women) were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover study with 4 dairy meals consisting of butter, cheese, whipped cream, or sour cream, corresponding to 45 g (approximately 60 energy percent) of fat. Plasma samples were collected for analysis of cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin concentrations at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the meals and analyzed as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC0-6h) in a mixed model. Hunger, satiety, and appetite sensations were measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) immediately after finishing the meals and at 4 and 6 h postprandially. Intake of cheese induced a higher level of plasma PP-iAUC0-6h compared with butter or whipped cream, and a higher level of plasma CCK-iAUC0-6h compared with whipped cream. Intake of whipped cream increased VAS appetite at 4 h compared with cheese or sour cream, and at 6 h compared with cheese or butter. No significant meal effect was found for hunger, satiety, plasma PYY, or plasma ghrelin concentration. Intake of cheese increased postprandial plasma PP and CCK concentrations and decreased appetite compared with whipped cream but not with sour cream. These findings encourage further investigations of how different dairy products affect gut hormone secretion and appetite sensation.

KEYWORDS:

appetite; dairy matrix; gut hormones; visual analog scale

PMID:
31759587
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2019-16863

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