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Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2020 Feb;38(1):31-59. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2019.09.003.

The Emergency Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Extremity Fractures.

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Division of Emergency Medicine, ImageSim, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8, Canada. Electronic address:


Approximately one-third of children sustain a fracture before the age of 16 years; however, their unique anatomy and healing properties often result in a good outcome. This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of pediatric extremity injuries. The article describes the anatomic features and healing principles unique to children and discusses pediatric upper and lower extremity fractures and presents evidence-based and standard practice for their management. Finally, the article describes the conditions under which emergency physicians are likely to miss pediatric fractures by highlighting specific examples and discussing the general factors that lead to these errors.


Children; Diagnosis; Emergency; Fractures; Management

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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