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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Dec;67(12):2005-2011. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_642_19.

Management of retinoblastoma in older children (>5 years) using intra-arterial chemotherapy: Comparison of outcomes to prechemotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy eras.

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Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Endovascular Service of the Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.



Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) has emerged as an effective treatment for retinoblastoma (RB) however, little information exists regarding its use in older patients (>5 years). In the present study, we evaluate the use of IAC (2008-2018) for RB in older patients and compare the outcomes to those in the prechemotherapy (<1994) and intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) (1994-2007) eras.


A retrospective analysis of all patients older than 5 years treated with IAC for RB from 2008-2018. Comparisons were made to 26 active RB cases in older children treated in the prechemotherapy era and to 12 active RB cases treated in the IVC era.


There were 13 eyes with RB in 13 older patients treated in the IAC era. The median patient age was 6.8 years. Tumor response was achieved in all 13 eyes at a median interval of 1.1 months from first IAC. Globe salvage was achieved in eight eyes with five eyes requiring enucleation. At 14 months, median follow-up after IAC, there was no metastasis or death. Compared to the prechemotherapy era, those in the IAC era demonstrated significant reduction in need for enucleation (P < 0.001) and EBRT or enucleation (P < 0.001). Compared to the IVC era, there was significant reduction in need for EBRT (P = 0.02) and EBRT or enucleation (P = 0.03) and similar avoidance of metastasis (P > 0.99) and death (P > 0.99).


Older patients with RB managed in the IAC era demonstrated reduced need for EBRT or enucleation compared to those managed in the IVC or prechemotherapy eras, with no instance of metastasis or death.


Children; IAC; eye; older; retinoblastoma

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