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Surg Clin North Am. 2020 Feb;100(1):161-173. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2019.09.009. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Principles of Immunotherapy in Melanoma.

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Department of Hematology/Oncology, Marshfield Clinic - Weston Center, 3501 Cranberry Boulevard, Weston, WI 54476, USA. Electronic address:
Pharmacy Services, Marshfield Medical Center, 1000 North Oak Avenue, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA.


Advanced/metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a low survival rate. Traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies do not appreciably extend life and systemic cytokine/chemokine administration produces toxic side effects. By harnessing the surveillance and cytotoxic features of the immune system, immunotherapies can provide a durable response and are proved to improve disease outcomes in patients with advanced/metastatic melanoma and other cancers. Close monitoring is necessary, however, to identify and treat immune system-related adverse events before they become life-threatening. Because metastatic lesions can respond differently to immunotherapies, modified response criteria have been developed to assist physicians in tracking patient response to treatment.


CTLA-4; IFNα-2b; IL-2; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy; Malignant melanoma; PD-1

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