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Eur J Orthod. 2019 Nov 21. pii: cjz092. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjz092. [Epub ahead of print]

Class II treatment in early mixed dentition with the eruption guidance appliance: effects and long-term stability.

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Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
City of Turku Welfare Division, Oral Health Care, Turku, Finland.



Our aim was to analyse dentoskeletal effects and long-term stability of Class II treatment carried out with an eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in early mixed dentition.


Sixty-five Class II patients (38 females and 27 males), treated with an EGA in early mixed dentition, were compared with 58 children (26 females and 32 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The mean age in the treatment group at the start (T1) and end of treatment (T2) was 5.4 years (±0.4) and 8.5 years (±0.9), respectively, and at the final examination in the early permanent dentition (T3) 16.7 years (±0.4). In the control group, the mean age at T1 and T2 were 5.1 years (±0.5) and 8.4 years (±0.5), respectively. The independent and dependent sample t-tests, Chi-square test, and Fisher's test were used in the statistical evaluation.


In the treatment group, the frequency of Class II decreased from 100 to 14% during the treatment (T1-T2) and a significant correction took place in all occlusal variables. At T2, the treatment and control groups showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in all occlusal variables. In the treated children, mandibular length increased 5 mm more (P < 0.001) from T1 to T2 compared to the control children, and the ANB angle became significantly smaller (P = 0.006). During the post-treatment period (T2-T3), the frequency of Class II in the treatment group decreased from 14 to 2% (P < 0.05), overbite increased from 2.2 to 3.1 mm (P < 0.05), and lower crowding increased from 2to 14% (P < 0.05). Post-treatment changes in overjet and upper crowding were not statistically significant. At T3, the mean values of the SNA, SNB, and ANB angles were 83.0° (SD 3.9°), 81.3° (SD 3.8°), and 2.4° (SD 1.5°), respectively.


A clinically significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet, overbite, incisor alignment, and growth enhancement of the mandible were observed after treatment in early mixed dentition. The treatment results remained largely stable in the early permanent dentition. However, an increase was observed in overbite and lower crowding. None of the children treated in early mixed dentition needed a second treatment phase.


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