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Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2083:145-163. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9952-1_11.

cis/trans Carotenoid Extraction, Purification, Detection, Quantification, and Profiling in Plant Tissues.

Author information

1
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, 2751, NSW, Australia.
2
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, 2751, NSW, Australia. c.cazzonelli@westernsydney.edu.au.

Abstract

Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method of choice used in biological, health, and food research to identify, quantify, and profile carotenoid species. The identification and quantification of cis- and/or trans-carotene and xanthophyll isomers in plant tissues can be affected by the method of sample preparation and extraction, as well as the HPLC column chemistry and the solvent gradient. There is a high degree of heterogeneity in existing methods in terms of their ease, efficiency, and accuracy. We describe a simple carotenoid extraction method and two different optimised HPLC methods utilizing C18 or C30 reverse-phase columns. We outline applications, advantages, and disadvantages for using these reverse phase columns to detect xanthophylls and cis-carotenes in wild-type photosynthetic leaves and mutant dark-grown etiolated seedlings, respectively. Resources are provided to profile individual species based upon their spectral properties and retention time, as well as quantify carotenoids by their composition and absolute levels in different plant tissues.

KEYWORDS:

C18; C30; Carotenoid; Composition; HPLC; Molar coefficient; Plants; cis-carotene

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