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Indian J Dent Res. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):612-621. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_947_18.

Areca nut use disorder: A dynamic model map.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Affiliated to the Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.



Areca nut (AN) chewing is common among Southeast Asian population. Use of AN products (with or without tobacco) have a multifaceted effect on physical health, especially on cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. AN is a known group 1 carcinogen and carries addictive potential. Varying degrees of AN-related substance use disorder (SUD) have been reported among AN chewers. There is a lacuna in awareness of the health risk of AN use, prevention, and cessation programs among AN users, particularly in those who have developed SUD.

Existing Lacunae:

The dynamic interaction of factors that promote AN use and later the risk of developing SUD at individual and community level has not been studied in depth. Understanding of the bio-psycho-socio-economic-cultural factors is necessary to identify the factors that prelude, promote, and reinforce AN usage. For managing AN-related conditions, including the several systemic disorders, there is a knowledge lacunae, among health care providers with respect to the pathophysiology of AN-related health issues, SUD, and nonavailability of structured, evidence-based cessation protocols.


This manuscript presents a model-map to study the dynamics of AN use and the impact of AN on health and health care system at individual as well as community level. The model proposed can help the health policymakers to create evidence-based awareness and cessation protocols for AN.


Areca nut; Substance use disorder; cessation; deaddiction; oral submucous fibrosis

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