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Indian J Dent Res. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):558-567. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_12_18.

Calcium sulfate-based bioactive cement for periodontal regeneration: An In Vitro study.

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Division of Bioceramics, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Division of Tissue Culture, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.


Background and Objective:

Various types of osteoconductive graft materials are used for the management of alveolar bone defects arising out of periodontal disease. Inorganic, self-setting, bioactive bone cements are suggested to be most appropriate because they can conformally fill the bone defect and resorb progressively along with the regeneration of the host site. A new calcium sulfate-based bioactive bone cement (BioCaS) is developed, having simplicity and effectiveness for bone grafting applications. The response of primary human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells to this material is investigated through in vitro cell culture model so as to qualify it for the repair of periodontal infrabony defects.


The BioCaS was designed as powder-liquid combination with in-house synthesized high purity calcium sulfate hemihydrate incorporating hydrogen orthophosphate ions. hPDL cells were isolated, cultured and characterized using optimized primary cell culture techniques. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of the BioCaS samples were evaluated using the hPDL cells, with hydroxyapatite ceramic material as control. Osteogenic differentiation of the hPDL cells in presence of BioCaS was also evaluated using Alizarin red staining, Alizarin red assay, Von Kossa staining and Masson's trichrome staining.


The primary cell culture techniques yielded a healthy population of periodontal ligament cells, with fibroblast morphology and characteristic marker expressions. The hPDL cells exhibited good viability, adhesion and spreading to the BioCaS cement in comparison to sintered hydroxyapatite. In addition, the cells differentiated to osteogenic lineage in the presence of the BioCaS cement, without extraneous osteogenic supplements, confirming the inherent bioactivity of the cement.


The new BioCaS cement is a potential candidate for the repair of periodontal defects.


Alveolar bone grafts; BioActive calcium sulfate cements; biomaterial-cell interactions; periodontal ligament cells

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