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Indian J Dent Res. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):521-526. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_144_16.

Periodontal health status among HIV-seropositive pregnant women.

Author information

Department of Periodontics, Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences, Government Dental College and Hospital, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Aims and Objective:

Routine oral health care is essential for those living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, especially in pregnant women. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, immunosupression in HIV along with bacterial load in periodontal infections strongly influence the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health status in HIV seropositive pregnant women in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Materials and Methods:

This study includes a sample of 90 divided into three groups; HIV seropositive pregnant women (group PH; n = 30), HIV seropositive nonpregnant women (group H; n = 30), and healthy pregnant women without HIV infection (group P; n = 30). Clinical examination includes the recording of probing depths (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and periodontal screening and recording index (PSR) were assessed in three groups. Statistical analysis was done by Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon paired test using the software SPSS version 17.


Clinical parameters do not show any significant variation between the three groups. But slightly higher mean PD and CAL levels was observed in HIV seropositive pregnant and nonpregnant women compared with healthy pregnant women without HIV infection. About 13% of severe gingivitis cases were observed in HIV seropositive pregnant group compared with 6% in HIV seropositive and 3% in healthy pregnant group.


Presence of slightly higher percentage of severe gingivitis in HIV seropositive pregnant women strengthens the fact of extra need for preventive oral health services during the prenatal period and provides recommendations for promoting maternal oral health in regional antiretroviral therapy centers in India.


HIV seropositive; periodontal health; pregnancy

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