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Neurol India. 2019 Sep-Oct;67(5):1341-1343. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.271257.

A Novel Mutation in Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation - A Case Report.

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Department of Neurology, Government General Hospital, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), previously called Hallervorden Spatz disease, is a group of disorders which share the hallmark of iron deposition in the brain. They are collectively characterized by extrapyramidal movement disorders, particularly those of parkinsonism, dystonia, cognitive regression, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, pyramidal features, optic atrophy, and retinal abnormalities. There is aberrant brain iron metabolism, with large amounts of iron deposited in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. NBIA displays a marked genetic heterogeneity, and 10 genes have been associated with different NBIA subtypes at present. We present a 12-year-old boy with a one and a half-year history of a slow, progressive gait disturbance. An MRI of his brain revealed T2, FLAIR bilateral symmetrical hypointensities in globus pallidus and substantia nigra s/o NBIA. His genetic analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variation in exon 2 of the C19orf12 gene (chr19:30199203; A>C) that results in the amino acid substitution of valine for phenylalanine at codon 51 (p.F51V; ENST00000392278). This is consistent with the MPAN (mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration) subtype.


Brain iron metabolism; Hallervorden Spatz disease; mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration; neurodegeneration; pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN)

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