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Diabetes Care. 2019 Nov 19. pii: dc191466. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1466. [Epub ahead of print]

Wholegrain Particle Size Influences Postprandial Glycemia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Study Comparing Four Wholegrain Breads.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand andrew.reynolds@otago.ac.nz.
2
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
3
Riddet Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
5
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
6
Sciences Māori, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
7
School of Health, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Wholegrain foods vary in the extent of processing. We investigated whether wholegrain particle size in bread influences postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Postprandial glycemia (incremental area under the blood glucose curve [iAUC]) was measured after consumption of three breads made with roller-milled wholegrain flour and added grains and a fourth made with stoneground flour. All flours and grains were 100% wholegrain wheat. Breads were nutrient matched.

RESULTS:

Fifteen adults (64 ± 10 years, HbA1c 58 ± 13 mmol/mol) completed the study. iAUC for the three breads made with roller-milled flour ranged from 376 to 641 mmol-1min-1, inverse linear trend for grain particle size P = 0.039. The iAUC for stoneground wholegrain bread (503) was smaller than predicted from mean particle size.

CONCLUSIONS:

Wholegrain structural integrity in bread is a determinant of glycemic response. These findings have implications for dietary advice and the definition of the term "'wholegrain."

PMID:
31744812
DOI:
10.2337/dc19-1466

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