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J Res Med Sci. 2019 Oct 25;24:94. doi: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_242_19. eCollection 2019.

Diabetes and cancer: A comprehensive review.

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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common worldwide endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and insulin action or both. A number of clinical studies have investigated diabetes and its causal relation with neoplasm. Several epidemiological studies have found that diabetic patients have an increased risk of different types of cancers, for example liver, pancreas, gastric (stomach), colorectum, kidney, and breast, and it is predicted that hyperglycemic state observed in diabetic milieu enhances the cancer risk in prediabetic and diabetic individuals. To explore the strength of evidence and biases in the claimed associations between type 2 DM (T2DM) and risk of developing cancer, an umbrella review of the evidence across published meta-analyses or systematic reviews is performed. The concurrence of T2DM with the growing burden of cancer globally has generated interest in defining the epidemiological and biological relationships between these medical conditions. Through this review, it was found that diabetes could be related to cancer. Yet, the results from most of the studies are obscure and conflicting and need a robust research so that the link between diabetes and cancer could be firmly and impeccably documented.


Breast neoplasms; diabetic complications; gastric neoplasms; hepatic neoplasms

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