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Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Dec;17(12):1011-1041. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2019.1694905. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Biological challenges of phage therapy and proposed solutions: a literature review.

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Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


Introduction: In light of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, phage (bacteriophage) therapy has been recognized as a potential alternative or addition to antibiotics in Western medicine for use in humans.Areas covered: This review assessed the scientific literature on phage therapy published between 1 January 2007 and 21 October 2019, with a focus on the successes and challenges of this prospective therapeutic.Expert opinion: Efficacy has been shown in animal models and experimental findings suggest promise for the safety of human phagotherapy. Significant challenges remain to be addressed prior to the standardization of phage therapy in the West, including the development of phage-resistant bacteria; the pharmacokinetic complexities of phage; and any potential human immune response incited by phagotherapy.


Phage; endolysin; phage resistance; phage therapy; phagotherapy

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