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Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Oct 25;8(11). pii: E511. doi: 10.3390/antiox8110511.

Vitamin D and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Is There a Link?

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Independent Researcher.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Filippo del Ponte" Hospital, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.
Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.
Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 81100 Naples, Italy.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Western University, London, ON N6H5W9, Canada.
MARGen Clinic, 18006 Granada, Spain.
Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary.
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a very common condition among pregnant women worldwide with important metabolic implications on the mother and the offspring. Vitamin D status has been suggested to potentially play a role in GDM risk with no documented consequences for the offspring. The purpose of this article was to review currently available evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and GDM. Current evidence shows an association between vitamin D blood levels and risk of GDM, despite heterogeneity of results across studies limit the conclusions. Moreover, data from randomized controlled trials is scarce and resulting in null findings. Among the limitations to be noted, improving the standardization of dosages, the characteristics of individuals in the sample, and the appropriate outcome measurement could provide a more effective approach in understanding the relationship between vitamin D and GDM. In conclusions, despite observational studies may suggest that adequate vitamin D levels may decrease the risk of GDM compared to deficiency status, evidence from clinical trials is inadequate to draft any definitive conclusion regarding its supplementation. Future better designed randomized clinical trials taking into account a more integrated approach could provide clearer and definitive data on the outcomes of such a multifactorial condition.


antenatal care; food fortification; gestational diabetes mellitus; nutrition; pregnancy; supplements; vitamin D

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