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Clin Nutr. 2019 Nov 4. pii: S0261-5614(19)33125-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.10.032. [Epub ahead of print]

Weight change and risk of the foundation of National Institute of Health Sarcopenia-defined low lean mass: Data from the National Health and Nutrition examination surveys 1999-2004.

Author information

1
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States; Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States; The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy, Lebanon, NH, United States. Electronic address: john.batsis@gmail.com.
2
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy, Lebanon, NH, United States.
3
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States; Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States.
4
Department of Kinesiology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States.
5
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States.
6
Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States.
7
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States; Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States; The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy, Lebanon, NH, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Self-reported weight change may lead to adverse outcomes. We evaluated weight change with cutpoints of low lean mass (LLM) in older adults.

METHODS:

Of 4984 subjects ≥60 years from NHANES 1999-2004, we applied LLM cutoffs of appendicular lean mass (ALM):body mass index (BMI) males<0.789, females<0.512. Self-reported weight was assessed at time of survey, and questions asked participants their weight one and 10 years earlier, and at age 25. Weight changes were categorized as greater/less/none than 5%. Logistic regression assessed weight change (gain, loss, no change) on LLM, after adjustment.

RESULTS:

Of 4984 participants (56.5% female), mean age and BMI were 71.1 years and 28.2 kg/m2. Mean ALM was 19.7 kg. In those with LLM, 13.5% and 16.3% gained/lost weight in the past year, while 48.9% and 19.4% gained/lost weight in the past decade. Compared to weight at age 25, 85.2 and 6.1% of LLM participants gained and lost ≥5% of their weight, respectively. Weight gain over the past year was associated with a higher risk of LLM (OR 1.35 [0.99,1.87]) compared to weight loss ≥5% over the past year (0.89 [0.70,1.12]). Weight gain (≥5%) over 10-years was associated with a higher risk of LLM (OR 2.03 [1.66, 2.49]) while weight loss (≥5%) was associated with a lower risk (OR 0.98 [0.76,1.28]). Results were robust compared to weight at 25 years (gain OR 2.37 [1.76,3.20]; loss OR 0.95 [0.65,1.39]).

CONCLUSION:

Self-reported weight gain suggests an increased risk of LLM. Future studies need to verify the relationship with physical function.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Low lean mass; Sarcopenia; Self-reported weight

PMID:
31727381
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2019.10.032

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