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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 9;16(22). pii: E4375. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16224375.

The Choice of Pedometer Impacts on Daily Step Counts in Primary School Children under Free-Living Conditions.

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College of Health and Welfare, J. F. Oberlin University, Tokyo 194-0294, Japan.
Yuki Hikihara, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba 275-0023, Japan.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan.
Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan.


Background: We examined whether daily step counts under free-living conditions differed among four types of pedometers used by primary school children. Methods: In Study one, we compared the Yamax SW-200 (widely used in research) and the Kenz Lifecorder (accelerometer-based pedometer) in 30 children (6-12 years). In Study two, after confirming good correlation between these devices, we used Kenz Lifecorder as the criterion device and compared it with the Yamasa EX-200 (pants pocket-type pedometer) and the Omron Active style Pro (accelerometer-based pedometer) among 48 (7-12 years) or 108 children (7-12 years). Results: In Study one, comparable mean step counts between pedometers were observed. The correlation was strong (r = 0.91); the average difference between these two pedometers was +4.5%. In Study two, the average differences between Kenz Lifecorder and Yamasa EX-200 and Kenz Lifecorder and Omron Active style Pro were -7.9% and -18.2%, respectively, and those were not significantly equivalent according to the two one-sided-tests method. The correlations between Yamasa or Omron Active style Pro and Lifecorder were moderate and strong, respectively. Conclusions: The choice of pedometer had a substantial impact on step counts. A consensus on the appropriate pedometer for quantifying daily step counts is needed for evidence-based recommendations for health promotion.


acceleration; children; physical activity

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