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Prev Vet Med. 2019 Dec 1;173:104805. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104805. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the surveillance system for tuberculosis in cattle in Spain.

Author information

1
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Electronic address: sebastian.napp@irta.es.
2
Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
3
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.
4
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain; Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA), Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

In Spain, the eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has had some setbacks and therefore we need to re-evaluate the current surveillance strategies. The Spanish cattle TB surveillance system consists of three components: a) routine skin testing, b) slaughterhouse surveillance, and c) pre-movement controls. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of the whole surveillance system and evaluate the relative contribution of each of those components, both at national and at the province level. The effectiveness was estimated based on both the sensitivity of detection per year and the time until detection. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of different factors on that effectiveness. We used a stochastic model that simulated the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex (MTC) infection within cattle herds that was modified to incorporate the three components of TB surveillance. Input data, at the province level, on cattle movements off-farm or the frequency of the routine screening were provided by the Spanish Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Under the current conditions, 96.1% of Spanish herds were detected within one year after their infection (i.e. mean sensitivity of TB surveillance), although that detection took on average 178 days. The surveillance system effectiveness was highly dependent on the routine skin testing, responsible for the detection of almost 90% of the infected herds, while slaughterhouse surveillance and pre-movement controls contributed only to the identification of a small proportion of infected herds. We observed substantial differences in the effectiveness of the surveillance components among Spanish provinces, although in general, the sensitivities were high. The most influential factor on the efficiency of TB detection in Spain was, by far, the frequency of routine controls, followed by the sensitivity of the test used. In a context of reduced funding for cattle TB eradication, the frequency of testing should be adapted based on risk-based surveillance strategies, i.e. efforts should focus on herds more likely to be infected, but also in herds more likely to infect other herds. While slaughterhouse surveillance seems a cost-effective strategy, the use of pre-movement testing at least in areas of low incidence should be further evaluated.

KEYWORDS:

Animal tuberculosis; Bovine tuberculosis; Cattle; Stochastic model; Surveillance

PMID:
31715496
DOI:
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104805
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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