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JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Nov 11:1-10. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5349. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of a Palliative Care Program for Nursing Homes in 7 Countries: The PACE Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial.

Author information

1
VUB-UGhent End-of-Life Care Research Group, Ghent University and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussel, Belgium.
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussel, Belgium.
3
Department of Family Medicine and Chronic Care, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussel, Belgium.
4
Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Expertise Center for Palliative Care, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
5
Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
6
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
7
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
8
IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
9
International Observatory on End-of-Life Care, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
10
Unit for Research on Aging Society, Department of Sociology of Medicine, Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Chair, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
11
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
12
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
13
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
14
Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
15
Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability (CIGEV), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
16
Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.
17
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Belgium.

Abstract

Importance:

High-quality evidence on how to improve palliative care in nursing homes is lacking.

Objective:

To investigate the effect of the Palliative Care for Older People (PACE) Steps to Success Program on resident and staff outcomes.

Design, Setting, and Participants:

A cluster-randomized clinical trial (2015-2017) in 78 nursing homes in 7 countries comparing PACE Steps to Success Program (intervention) with usual care (control). Randomization was stratified by country and median number of beds in each country in a 1:1 ratio.

Interventions:

The PACE Steps to Success Program is a multicomponent intervention to integrate basic nonspecialist palliative care in nursing homes. Using a train-the-trainer approach, an external trainer supports staff in nursing homes to introduce a palliative care approach over the course of 1 year following a 6-steps program. The steps are (1) advance care planning with residents and family, (2) assessment, care planning, and review of needs and problems, (3) coordination of care via monthly multidisciplinary review meetings, (4) delivery of high-quality care focusing on pain and depression, (5) care in the last days of life, and (6) care after death.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

The primary resident outcome was comfort in the last week of life measured after death by staff using the End-of-Life in Dementia Scale Comfort Assessment While Dying (EOLD-CAD; range, 14-42). The primary staff outcome was knowledge of palliative care reported by staff using the Palliative Care Survey (PCS; range, 0-1).

Results:

Concerning deceased residents, we collected 551 of 610 questionnaires from staff at baseline and 984 of 1178 postintervention in 37 intervention and 36 control homes. Mean (SD) age at time of death ranged between 85.22 (9.13) and 85.91 (8.57) years, and between 60.6% (160/264) and 70.6% (190/269) of residents were women across the different groups. Residents' comfort in the last week of life did not differ between intervention and control groups (baseline-adjusted mean difference, -0.55; 95% CI, -1.71 to 0.61; P = .35). Concerning staff, we collected 2680 of 3638 questionnaires at baseline and 2437 of 3510 postintervention in 37 intervention and 38 control homes. Mean (SD) age of staff ranged between 42.3 (12.1) and 44.1 (11.7) years, and between 87.2% (1092/1253) and 89% (1224/1375) of staff were women across the different groups. Staff in the intervention group had statistically significantly better knowledge of palliative care than staff in the control group, but the clinical difference was minimal (baseline-adjusted mean difference, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05; P < .001). Data analyses began on April 20, 2018.

Conclusions and Relevance:

Residents' comfort in the last week of life did not improve after introducing the PACE Steps to Success Program. Improvements in staff knowledge of palliative care were clinically not important.

Trial Registration:

ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN14741671.

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