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World Allergy Organ J. 2019 Oct 24;12(10):100067. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100067. eCollection 2019 Oct.

Worldwide perspectives on venom allergy.

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University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.
Department of Dermatoloy and Allergy, University Medical Center Giessen UKGM, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
National Center of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia.
Division of Paediatric Allergy, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Brazil.
Department of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.
Allergy/Immunology, LAUMC, Beirut, Lebanon.
Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Maryland, USA.


Venom immunotherapy is the standard of care for people with severe reactions and has been proven to reduce risk of future anaphylactic events. There is a moral imperative to ensure production, supply and worldwide availability of locally relevant, registered, standardized commercial venom extracts for diagnosis and treatment. Insects causing severe immediate allergic reactions vary by region worldwide. The most common culprits include honeybees (Apis mellifera), social wasps including yellow jackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), paper wasps (Polistes) and hornets (Vespa), stinging ants (Solenopsis, Myrmecia, Pachycondyla, and Pogonomyrmex), and bumblebees (Bombus). Insects with importance in specific areas of the world include the Australian tick (Ixodes holocyclus), the kissing bug (Triatoma spp), horseflies (Tabanus spp), and mosquitoes (Aedes, Culex, Anopheles). Reliable access to high quality venom immunotherapy to locally relevant allergens is not available throughout the world. Many current commercially available therapeutic vaccines have deficiencies, are not suitable for, or are unavailable in vast areas of the globe. New products are required to replace products that are unstandardized or inadequate, particularly whole-body extract products. New products are required for insects in which no current treatment options exist. Venom immunotherapy should be promoted throughout the world and the provision thereof be supported by health authorities, regulatory authorities and all sectors of the health care service.


Immunotherapy; Insects; Venom; Venom immunotherapy

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