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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Sep-Oct;30(5):1179-1183. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.270278.

Cryptococcosis masquerading as disseminated tuberculosis in a patient on chronic hemodialysis.

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Department of Nephrology, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Department of Pathology, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India.


Chronic hemodialysis (HD) recipients are nearly ten times more prone to fungal infections compared to the general population. However, infections such as cryptococcosis usually affect immunocompromised patients, unusual in otherwise immunocompetent patients. Here, we describe a unique case of cryptococcosis in a human immunodeficiency virus negative end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient. A 26-year-old female patient, diagnosed with ESRD, on maintenance HD for the past six months, presented with pyrexia of unknown origin associated with cervical lymphadenopathy, biopsy of which showed granulomatous inflammation. The patient was initiated on anti-tubercular treatment but did not respond to treatment. A month later, she developed skin lesions; biopsy and culture from scrapings of the lesions were suggestive of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. She responded to antifungal therapy very well, with a resolution of fever and skin lesions within a month. This is a unique case report, in which cryptococcosis mimicked tuberculosis in an otherwise immunocompetent patient with ESRD.

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