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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2019 Sep-Oct;30(5):1075-1083. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.270263.

Intensive monitoring of adverse drug reactions in nephrology unit of tertiary care teaching hospital.

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Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, RAK College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras Al-Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Nephrology, JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore, Karnataka, India.


Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the common causes of morbidity and mortality. Renal insufficiency is considered as one of the risk factors for the development of ADR. The study determined the occurrence of ADRs in patients with renal failure and their incidence of hospital admission. The study also evaluated the nature and severity of ADRs. This was a prospective study conducted in the nephrology unit at a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of nine months. Patients receiving regular hemodialysis and those either referred or admitted to the nephrology ward were included. ADRs were intensively monitored throughout the study. The causality of suspected ADRs was assessed with the WHO probability scale, Naranjo algorithm, and Karch and Lasagna's scale. The predictability and preventability of ADRs were also determined. A total of 45 ADRs were identified in 369 patients; incidence was 12.19%. Nine ADRs (20%) needed hospitalization. A total of 27 (60%) and 17 (37.8%) ADRs were found to be probable and possible, respectively when assessed by the WHO probability scale. On the contrary, 33 (73.3%) and 26 (57.8%) ADRs were possible in causality when assessed by Karch and Lasagna's scale and Naranjo scale, respectively. Most of the ADRs [26 (57.8%)] were predictable in nature. A wide range of ADRs was noticed in patients with renal impairment, and our study has systematically assessed the nature and severity of ADRs.

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