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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Nov 6. doi: 10.1111/dom.13906. [Epub ahead of print]

Role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 enhanced by vildagliptin in the glycaemic and energy expenditure responses to intraduodenal fat infusion in type 2 diabetes.

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Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, Institute of Diabetes, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.



To evaluate the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor vildagliptin on glycaemic and energy expenditure responses during intraduodenal fat infusion, as well as the contribution of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signalling, in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).


A total of 15 people with T2DM managed by diet and/or metformin (glycated haemoglobin 49.3 ± 2.1 mmol/mol) were studied on three occasions (two with vildagliptin and one with placebo) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. On each day, vildagliptin 50 mg or placebo was given orally, followed by intravenous exendin (9-39) 600 pmol/kg/min, on one of the two vildagliptin treatment days, or 0.9% saline over 180 minutes. At between 0 and 120 minutes, a fat emulsion was infused intraduodenally at 2 kcal/min. Energy expenditure, plasma glucose and glucose-regulatory hormones were evaluated.


Intraduodenal fat increased plasma GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin and glucagon, and energy expenditure, and decreased plasma glucose (all P < 0.05). On the two intravenous saline days, plasma glucose and glucagon were lower, plasma intact GLP-1 was higher (all P < 0.05), and energy expenditure tended to be lower after vildagliptin (P = 0.08) than placebo. On the two vildagliptin days, plasma glucose, glucagon and GLP-1 (both total and intact), and energy expenditure were higher during intravenous exendin (9-39) than saline (all P < 0.05).


In well-controlled T2DM during intraduodenal fat infusion, vildagliptin lowered plasma glucose and glucagon, and tended to decrease energy expenditure, effects that were mediated by endogenous GLP-1.


DPP-4 inhibitor; GLP-1; energy regulation; glucagon; glycaemic control; type 2 diabetes


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