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Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Nov 6. pii: gkz981. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz981. [Epub ahead of print]

Therapeutic target database 2020: enriched resource for facilitating research and early development of targeted therapeutics.

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College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Drug Clinical Research and Evaluation, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310000, China.
State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, The Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China.
Bioinformatics and Drug Design Group, Department of Pharmacy, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore 117543, Singapore.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.


Knowledge of therapeutic targets and early drug candidates is useful for improved drug discovery. In particular, information about target regulators and the patented therapeutic agents facilitates research regarding druggability, systems pharmacology, new trends, molecular landscapes, and the development of drug discovery tools. To complement other databases, we constructed the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) with expanded information about (i) target-regulating microRNAs and transcription factors, (ii) target-interacting proteins, and (iii) patented agents and their targets (structures and experimental activity values if available), which can be conveniently retrieved and is further enriched with regulatory mechanisms or biochemical classes. We also updated the TTD with the recently released International Classification of Diseases ICD-11 codes and additional sets of successful, clinical trial, and literature-reported targets that emerged since the last update. TTD is accessible at In case of possible web connectivity issues, two mirror sites of TTD are also constructed ( and


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