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Addiction. 2019 Nov 6. doi: 10.1111/add.14884. [Epub ahead of print]

Differences in nicotine intake and effects from electronic and combustible cigarettes among dual users.

Author information

1
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
2
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
3
Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
4
Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Abstract

AIM:

To describe systemic nicotine exposure and subjective effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in people who use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (dual users), including within-subject comparisons of e-cigarette and cigarette use.

DESIGN:

Two-arm, counterbalanced crossover study. Participants used their usual brand of e-cigarette or cigarette during a standardized session in a 2-week study.

SETTING:

Research ward, San Francisco, California, USA.

PARTICIPANTS:

Thirty-six healthy (8 women, 28 men) participants.

MEASUREMENTS:

Plasma nicotine was analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; nicotine withdrawal, urge to smoke and vape, affective states, craving, satisfaction, and psychological reward were measured by standardized questionnaires.

FINDINGS:

Compared with cigarettes, average maximum plasma nicotine concentration (Cmax ) was lower with e-cigarettes [6.1±5.5 ng/ml (mean, SD) vs 20.2±11.1 ng/mL, p<0.001] and time of maximal concentration (Tmax ) was longer [6.5±5.4 min vs 2.7±2.4 min, (p<0.001)]. Use of both products resulted in a reduction in the severity of withdrawal symptoms, negative affect, and urge to use either product. E-cigarettes were less rewarding and satisfying and reduced craving to a lesser degree than cigarettes. We were not able to detect any differences in withdrawal symptoms, affective states, and urge to smoke cigarettes between e-cigarette and cigarette use.

CONCLUSION:

Systemic nicotine exposure was on average lower with single use of e-cigarettes compared with cigarettes and e-cigarettes was judged to be less satisfying and rewarding and reduced craving less than cigarettes.

KEYWORDS:

dual users; e-cigarettes; nicotine pharmacokinetics; subjective effects

PMID:
31691397
DOI:
10.1111/add.14884

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