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BMJ Open. 2019 Nov 3;9(11):e030052. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030052.

Relations of magnesium intake to cognitive impairment and dementia among participants in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: a prospective cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Hypertension Research Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, South China University of Technology School of Medicine, Guangzhou, China kenneth_lo@brown.edu fyq1819@163.com simin_liu@brown.edu.
2
Centre for Global Cardiometabolic Health, Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
4
Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
6
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Original Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
7
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
8
School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
9
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
10
Centre for Global Cardiometabolic Health, Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA kenneth_lo@brown.edu fyq1819@163.com simin_liu@brown.edu.
11
Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the associations of dietary and supplemental magnesium (Mg) as assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with cognitive outcomes among ageing women.

DESIGN:

This work conducts a prospective cohort study of participants enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), which was subsequently extended and named WHIMS-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health.

SETTING:

Forty clinical centres in the USA.

PARTICIPANTS:

Postmenopausal women aged 65-79 years without dementia on enrolment.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Physician-adjudicated mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or probable dementia (PD).

RESULTS:

Participants were excluded (n=1006) if they had extreme values of dietary energy intake, had missing or extreme body mass index values, with prevalent MCI/PD at baseline, received only one cognitive assessment or had been followed up for <1 year. During >20 years of follow-up, 765 (11.8%) out of 6473 participants developed MCI/PD. For MCI/PD and MCI, the risks tended to be lower among participants in quintiles Q2-Q5 of Mg consumption compared with those in the lowest quintile. Participants in Q3 had a significantly lower risk of MCI/PD (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.91) and MCI (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.87) after multivariate adjustments. No significant association was observed between total Mg intake and PD. The association between total Mg intake, MCI/PD and MCI was non-linear as suggested by the likelihood test.

CONCLUSIONS:

Total Mg intake between the estimated average requirement and the recommended dietary allowances may associate with a lower risk of MCI/PD and MCI.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

NCT00685009.

KEYWORDS:

dementia; epidemiology; nutrition & dietetics

PMID:
31685499
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030052
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