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J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Nov 5;8(21):e013296. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.013296. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Without Standard Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors-How Common Are They, and What Are Their Outcomes?

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Cardiothoracic and Vascular Health Kolling Institute and Department of Cardiology Royal North Shore Hospital Northern Sydney Local Health District St Leonards Australia.
Charles Perkins Centre University of Sydney Australia.
Dunedin School of Medicine University of Otago Dunedin New Zealand.
School of Public Health Clinical Research Centre Sydney Local Health District University of Sydney Australia.
Westmead Applied Research Centre Faculty of Medicine and Health University of Sydney Australia.
Department of Cardiology Westmead Hospital Sydney Australia.
Bankstown Hospital Sydney Australia.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine The Alfred Hospital Melbourne VIC Australia.
Department of Cardiology Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Sydney Australia.
Menzies Institute for Medical Research University of Tasmania Hobart Australia.
Royal Hobart Hospital Hobart Australia.
Cardiology Department Concord Repatriation General Hospital Sydney Australia.


Background Programs targeting the standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRFs: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking) are critical to tackling coronary heart disease at a community level. However, myocardial infarction in SMuRF-less individuals is not uncommon. This study uses 2 sequential large, multicenter registries to examine the proportion and outcomes of SMuRF-less ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Methods and Results We identified 3081 STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease in the Australian GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and CONCORDANCE (Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome Care) registries, encompassing 42 hospitals, between 1999 and 2017. We examined the proportion that were SMuRF-less as well as outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or heart failure, during the index admission). Multivariate regression models were used to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events. Of STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease 19% also had no history of SMuRFs. This proportion increased from 14% to 23% during the study period (P=0.0067). SMuRF-less individuals had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than individuals with 1 or more SMuRFs. There were no clinically significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events at 6 months between the 2 groups. Conclusions A substantial and increasing proportion of STEMI presentations occur independently of SMuRFs. Discovery of new markers and mechanisms of disease beyond standard risk factors may facilitate novel preventative strategies. Studies to assess longer-term outcomes of SMuRF-less STEMI patients are warranted.


ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction; atherosclerosis; mortality; risk factor

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