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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Oct 24;157:107893. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107893. [Epub ahead of print]

Flash glucose monitoring: Impact on markers of glycaemic control and patient-reported outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the real-world setting.

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Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, Wrexham, UK.
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, Wrexham, UK. Electronic address:



We aimed to evaluate both glycaemic parameters and patient-reported outcomes in patients prescribed FGM based on the local criteria at our institution.


This retrospective observational study included patients aged > 18 years with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who were prescribed FreeStyle Libre FGM (n = 90). Quantitative data on glycaemic parameters was collected pre- and post-initiation of FGM in addition to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The primary outcome was change in pre- and post-FGM levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C).


There was a mean reduction in HbA1c of -7.29 ± 10.76 mmol/mol (p < 0.001, CI95% 4.94-9.64) sustained to the latest reading. There was also a mean reduction in the number of hypoglycaemic episodes per week of 3.20 (percentage reduction 51.86%, p < 0.001, CI95% 1.64-4.77). A significant improvement in quality of life scores was noted in all five domains of the abbreviated DDS between before and after starting FGM (p < 0.001). Key themes highlighted in inductive content analysis include 'life-changing', 'positive experience', and 'convenient'.


Flash glucose monitoring is associated with significant improvement in HbA1c to a mean follow-up of 4.6 months. Additionally, patients reported positive experiences of FGM with significant improvement in all aspects of a focussed Diabetes Distress Scale.


Flash glucose monitoring; FreeStyle Libre; Patient-reported outcome measure; Quality of life; Type 1 diabetes mellitus

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