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Contemp Clin Trials. 2019 Dec;87:105854. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2019.105854. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Clinical and demographic characteristics associated with baseline and change with randomized vitamin D treatment.

Author information

1
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Landmark Center West, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
2
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Center for Lipid Metabolomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: smora@bwh.harvard.edu.
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
4
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
5
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
6
Quest Diagnostics, 27027 Tourney Road, Valencia, CA 91355, USA.
7
Atherotech Diagnostics, 201 London Pkwy #400, Birmingham, AL 35211, USA; VAP Diagnostics R&D Laboratory, 201 London Pkwy, Birmingham, AL 3521, USA.
8
Atherotech Diagnostics, 201 London Pkwy #400, Birmingham, AL 35211, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a completed randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 (1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we examine baseline and change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and related biomarkers with randomized treatment and by clinical factors.

METHODS:

Baseline 25(OH)D was measured in 15,804 participants (mean age 68 years.; 50.8% women; 15.7% African Americans) and in 1660 1-year follow-up samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemiluminescence. Calcium and parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured by chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry respectively.

RESULTS:

Mean baseline total 25(OH)D (ng/mL ± SD) was 30.8 ± 10.0 ng/mL, and correlated inversely with iPTH (r = -0.28), p < .001. After adjusting for clinical factors, 25(OH)D (ng/mL ± SE) was lower in men vs women (29.7 ± 0.30 vs 31.4 ± 0.30, p < .0001) and in African Americans vs whites (27.9 ± 0.29 vs 32.5 ± 0.22, p < .0001). It was also lower with increasing BMI, smoking, and latitude, and varied by season. Mean 1-year 25(OH)D increased by 11.9 ng/mL in the active group and decreased by 0.7 ng/mL in placebo. The largest increases were noted among individuals with low baseline and African Americans. Results were similar for chemiluminescent immunoassay. Mean calcium was unchanged, and iPTH decreased with treatment.

CONCLUSION:

In VITAL, baseline 25(OH)D varied by clinical subgroups, was lower in men and African Americans. Concentrations increased with vitamin D supplementation, with the greatest increases in those with lower baseline 25(OH)D. The seasonal trends in 25(OH)D, iPTH, and calcium may be relevant when interpreting 25(OH)D levels for clinical treatment decisions.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

VITAL ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01169259.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; Parathyroid hormone; Seasonal effects; VITAL trial; Vitamin D

PMID:
31669447
PMCID:
PMC6875603
[Available on 2020-12-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.cct.2019.105854

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