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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Dec;33(4):907-932. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2019.07.003.

Novel Avian Influenza A Virus Infections of Humans.

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Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop H24-7, 1600 Clifton Road, Northeast, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. Electronic address:
School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, L6-42, Laboratory Block, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.


A high index of suspicion and early diagnosis of avian influenza A virus infection is essential reduce transmission risk. Clinical suspicion relies on eliciting a history of recent exposure to poultry or to sick persons. Diagnosis requires collection of appropriate respiratory specimens. Patients with suspected infection should be isolated immediately and patients with lower respiratory tract disease should be placed on airborne precautions if possible. Antiviral treatment should be started as soon as possible based upon clinical suspicion while awaiting specific viral diagnosis. Corticosteroids and salicylates should be avoided. Clinical management focuses on supportive care of complications.


Avian influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9


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