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Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019 Dec;3(12):917-928. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30330-X. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Localising movement disorders in childhood.

Author information

1
Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: nigel.bamford@yale.edu.
2
Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

The diagnosis and management of movement disorders in children can be improved by understanding the pathways, neurons, ion channels, and receptors involved in motor learning and control. In this Review, we use a localisation approach to examine the anatomy, physiology, and circuitry of the basal ganglia and highlight the mechanisms that underlie some of the major movement disorders in children. We review the connections between the basal ganglia and the thalamus and cortex, address the basic clinical definitions of movement disorders, and then place diseases within an anatomical or physiological framework that highlights basal ganglia function. We discuss how new pharmacological, behavioural, and electrophysiological approaches might benefit children with movement disorders by modifying synaptic function. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying movement disorders allows improved diagnostic and treatment decisions.

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