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Cells. 2019 Oct 24;8(11). pii: E1308. doi: 10.3390/cells8111308.

Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy in the Liver: Good or Bad?

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. sdash@tulane.edu.
2
Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, 2400 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70119, USA. sdash@tulane.edu.
3
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. yaydin@tulane.edu.
4
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. kmoroz@tulane.edu.

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection triggers autophagy processes, which help clear out the dysfunctional viral and cellular components that would otherwise inhibit the virus replication. Increased cellular autophagy may kill the infected cell and terminate the infection without proper regulation. The mechanism of autophagy regulation during liver disease progression in HCV infection is unclear. The autophagy research has gained a lot of attention recently since autophagy impairment is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) are three autophagy processes involved in the lysosomal degradation and extracellular release of cytosolic cargoes under excessive stress. Autophagy processes compensate for each other during extreme endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to promote host and microbe survival as well as HCC development in the highly stressed microenvironment of the cirrhotic liver. This review describes the molecular details of how excessive cellular stress generated during HCV infection activates CMA to improve cell survival. The pathological implications of stress-related CMA activation resulting in the loss of hepatic innate immunity and tumor suppressors, which are most often observed among cirrhotic patients with HCC, are discussed. The oncogenic cell programming through autophagy regulation initiated by a cytoplasmic virus may facilitate our understanding of HCC mechanisms related to non-viral etiologies and metabolic conditions such as uncontrolled type II diabetes. We propose that a better understanding of how excessive cellular stress leads to cancer through autophagy modulation may allow therapeutic development and early detection of HCC.

KEYWORDS:

chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA); endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); hepatitis C virus (HCV); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1); nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)

PMID:
31652893
DOI:
10.3390/cells8111308
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