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J Urol. 2019 Oct 25:101097JU0000000000000621. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000621. [Epub ahead of print]

African American Race is Not Associated with Risk of Reclassification during Active Surveillance: Results from the Canary Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Study (PASS).

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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, San Francisco, California.
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Stanford University, Stanford, California.
University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Christus Santa Rosa Hospital Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas.
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.



In a large, prospective, multi-institutional active surveillance cohort we evaluated whether African American men are at higher risk for reclassification.


The Canary PASS (Prostate Active Surveillance Study) is a protocol driven, active surveillance cohort with a prespecified prostate specific antigen and surveillance biopsy regimen. Men included in this study had Gleason Grade Group 1 or 2 disease at diagnosis and fewer than 5 years between diagnosis and enrollment, and had undergone 1 or more surveillance biopsies. The reclassification risk, defined as an increase in the Gleason score on subsequent biopsy, was compared between African American and Caucasian American men using Cox proportional hazards models. In the subset of men who underwent delayed prostatectomy the rate of adverse pathology findings, defined as pT3a or greater disease, or Gleason Grade Group 3 or greater, was compared in African American and Caucasian American men.


Of the 1,315 men 89 (7%) were African American and 1,226 (93%) were Caucasian American. There was no difference in the treatment rate in African American and Caucasian American men. In multivariate models African American race was not associated with the risk of reclassification (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.78-1.72). Of the 441 men who underwent prostatectomy after a period of active surveillance the rate of adverse pathology was similar in those who were African American and Caucasian American (46% vs 47%, p=0.99).


Of men on active surveillance who followed a standardized protocol of regular prostate specific antigen testing and biopsy those who were African American were not at increased risk for pathological reclassification while on active surveillance, or for adverse pathology findings at prostatectomy. Active surveillance appears to be an appropriate management strategy in African American men with favorable risk prostate cancer.


African Americans; prostatectomy; prostatic neoplasms; risk; watchful waiting

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