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J Orthod Sci. 2019 Oct 4;8:16. doi: 10.4103/jos.JOS_13_19. eCollection 2019.

Assessment of salivary interleukin-1β (IL-1β), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels and pain intensity in children and adults during initial orthodontic treatment.

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Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.



To investigate pain intensity, interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 values in saliva during initial orthodontic treatment among varying age groups and their correlation between these mediators.


Twenty healthy patients distributed equally in age and gender groups were chosen. Unstimulated saliva was collected before the placement of orthodontic fixed appliance (T0), 1 hour after the placement of the appliance with 0.014" nickel titanium archwire (T1), 1 month after the first visit (T2), and 1 hour after the placement of 0.016" nickel titanium archwire (T3). The saliva samples were then analyzed for prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1β using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pain intensity was measured using a numerical rating scale.


Prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1β levels had increased at T1 followed by a drop at T2 and a subsequent increase at T3. The prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1β levels were higher in adults than children. There was an insignificant correlation between the interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 changes in all the patients. No significant differences were seen in pain scores between adults and children. Insignificant correlation was seen between pain scores and prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1β.


Prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1β can be detected in saliva and are increased in during the initial orthodontic treatment but are higher in adults than children. Pain intensity was not significantly different between adults and children.


Adults; children; initial orthodontic treatment interleukin-1β; pain; prostaglandin E2; saliva

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