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Am J Hum Biol. 2019 Oct 24:e23341. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.23341. [Epub ahead of print]

Body mass index and movement behaviors among schoolchildren from 13 countries across a continuum of human development indices: A multinational cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, CHEO Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
2
School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
3
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
4
Research Group for Physical Activity and Health (CIDAF-FEFD), Universidade Pedagógica, Maputo, Mozambique.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study describes the distributions of body mass index (BMI) and movement behaviors among schoolchildren from 13 countries across a continuum of human development.

METHODS:

Data were from a cross-sectional study of 9-11-year-old children (n = 8055) recruited from 269 urban schools in 13 countries, and an additional 7 rural schools in one of these countries (Mozambique). BMI was derived from objectively measured heights and weights. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time (SED), and sleep duration were assessed by waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Linear models were used to describe the distributions of BMI z-scores, MVPA, SED, and sleep among sites across varying Human Development Indices (HDIs).

RESULTS:

Mean MVPA, SED, and sleep duration were 63.1 ± 27.3 minutes/day, 508.7 ± 72.4 minutes/day, and 8.8 ± 0.9 hours/night, respectively. Overall, 2.1% of the sample were thin, 19.5% overweight, and 11.7% were obese. Density curves (BMI z-scores and SED) for urban children in Mozambique showed significantly higher mean values compared with rural children. Boys had significantly higher mean MVPA compared with girls. Mean BMI z-scores were positively associated (β = .02; P = .004) with HDI, mean daily MVPA minutes were negatively associated (β = -.38; P = .025) with HDI, and mean SED time was positively associated with HDI (β = 1.18; P = .049). No significant association (β = .01; P = .29) was observed between sleep duration and HDI.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings show distinct differences in BMI and movement behavior profiles between urban and rural children in Mozambique. Mean BMI z-scores, MVPA, and SED differed by country HDI. These findings support the need to include both rural and urban participants in study samples.

PMID:
31648413
DOI:
10.1002/ajhb.23341

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