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Nature. 2019 Oct;574(7779):505-510. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor.

Author information

1
Google AI Quantum, Mountain View, CA, USA.
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
3
Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (QuAIL), NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
4
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA.
5
Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
6
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Physics, Erlangen, Germany.
7
Quantum Computing Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
8
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.
9
Scientific Computing, Oak Ridge Leadership Computing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.
10
Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies Inc., Greenbelt, MD, USA.
11
Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany.
12
RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
13
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
14
Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.
15
Google AI Quantum, Mountain View, CA, USA. jmartinis@google.com.
16
Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. jmartinis@google.com.

Abstract

The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor1. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits2-7 to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about 1016). Measurements from repeated experiments sample the resulting probability distribution, which we verify using classical simulations. Our Sycamore processor takes about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times-our benchmarks currently indicate that the equivalent task for a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer would take approximately 10,000 years. This dramatic increase in speed compared to all known classical algorithms is an experimental realization of quantum supremacy8-14 for this specific computational task, heralding a much-anticipated computing paradigm.

PMID:
31645734
DOI:
10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5

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