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Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Dec;64(12):3394-3401. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05861-7. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Individuals with HIV Mono-infection: A Growing Concern?

Author information

1
Division of General Internal Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
2
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Ralph H. Johnson VAMC, Charleston, SC, USA.
3
Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
4
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Durham VAMC, Durham, NC, USA.
6
Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ralph H. Johnson VAMC, Charleston, SC, USA. synw@musc.edu.
7
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. synw@musc.edu.
8
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain. synw@musc.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Liver disease is a leading cause of non-AIDS-related death in the HIV population since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Recent studies suggest that patients with HIV are at high risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and progressive liver fibrosis. Evidence for the prevalence, risk factors, and diagnostic methodologies of NAFLD in patients with HIV mono-infection is summarized here.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Although limited, published studies suggest that the prevalence of NAFLD is higher (30-50%) and progresses at an increased rate in patients with HIV compared to the general population. Identifying those at risk for significant liver fibrosis is critical, preferably with non-invasive screening tests. While there is a paucity of evidence in this population, transient elastography (TE) appears to provide a sensitive, non-invasive screening modality. Identifying NAFLD early will allow for dietary and lifestyle interventions, as well as future drug therapies to decrease the risk of progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in the high-risk HIV population. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and consider using TE for NAFLD diagnosis and surveillance.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; NAFLD; NASH; Transient elastography

PMID:
31643035
DOI:
10.1007/s10620-019-05861-7

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