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Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Nov;67(11):1857-1862. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_364_19.

Newer indices for predicting macular hole closure in idiopathic macular holes: A retrospective, comparative study.

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Department of Retina and Vitreous, Narayana Nethralaya, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



To study the utility and predictive ability of newer macular hole (MH) indices for closure following surgery.


In this retrospective study, pre- and post-operative optical coherence tomography images of 49 eyes with idiopathic full-thickness MH were reviewed and analysed. Various quantitative parameters of MH like maximum outer diameter (OD), minimum diameter between edges, height, nasal and temporal arm lengths, macular hole angle were noted. Indices including hole form factor, Macular Hole Index, (MHI), Diameter Hole Index (DHI) and Tractional Hole Index (THI) were calculated. Newer area indices like macular hole area index (MAI), cystoid space area index (MCSAI) and tissue area index (MTAI) were calculated using Image J (Ver. 1.51). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and cut-off values were derived for indices predicting type 1 or type 2 closure. Stepwise regression analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out to predict the chances of hole closure.


ROC curve analysis showed indices like MHI, THI and MCSAI were capable of successfully predicting type 1 closure while OD, DHI and MAI predicted type 2 closure. On stepwise regression analysis, MAI was identified as the most important index in predicting the type of hole closure. Using the binary logistic regression analysis, the predictive ability of the model to identify success or failure following MH surgery was 89.7% and 80% respectively.


MAI measurement could be used as a single important index in predicting hole closure in idiopathic MH. Further research is required to study this area index in detail.


Anatomic success; area index; macular hole; surgery


Conflict of interest statement

There are no conflicts of interest.

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