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Tob Use Insights. 2019 Oct 6;12:1179173X19878435. doi: 10.1177/1179173X19878435. eCollection 2019.

Multimodal Smoking Cessation in a Real-Life Setting: Combining Motivational Interviewing With Official Therapy and Reduced Risk Products.

Author information

Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, "V. Emanuele-Policlinico," Università di Catania, Catania, Italy.
Center of Excellence for the acceleration of HArm Reduction (COEHAR), Dipartimento di Medicina clinica e sperimentale, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, The City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Comunicazione, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Italy.



Tobacco use is a global pandemic, affecting an estimated 1.2 billion people and resulting in substantial health burdens and associated costs.


The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of several treatments for smoking cessation in a real-life setting and to evaluate predictors of smoking abstinence.


This research was designed with a sample of 593 cases recorded over the period between 2015 and 2016. Six treatment groups were included: (1) bupropion and motivational interviewing (MI); (2) bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and MI; (3) NRT and MI; (4) varenicline and MI; (5) personal vaporizer electronic cigarette and MI; and (6) electronic cigarette, cigarette like "cigalike," and MI.


Results support the efficacy of all treatment groups when used in a real-life setting. The predictors of smoking abstinence were sex, partner smoking status, previous quit attempts, daily consumption, self-efficacy, and level of nicotine dependence.


The use of different therapeutic strategies in clinical practice, including pharmacotherapy and nonstandard electronic nicotine delivery systems, such as an electronic cigarette, ensures a greater chance of cessation success and the possibility of tailoring interventions according to patients' resources.


NRT; Smoking cessation; bupropion; counseling; electronic cigarette; varenicline

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of conflicting interests:R.P. has received lecture fees from Pfizer and GSK; he has also served as a consultant to Pfizer and Arbi Group. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest or declarations regarding the contents of this paper.

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