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J Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18;221(5):786-795. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz525.

Conventional and High-Sensitivity Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance in 2 Transmission Settings: Haiti 2017.

Author information

1
Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
2
Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
3
Laboratorie National de Santé Publique, Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
4
Department of Immunology and Infection, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
5
Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
6
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal School of Public Health, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

Accurate malaria diagnosis is foundational for control and elimination, and Haiti relies on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) identifying Plasmodium falciparum in clinical and community settings. In 2017, 1 household and 2 easy-access group surveys tested all participants (N = 32 506) by conventional and high-sensitivity RDTs. A subset of blood samples (n = 1154) was laboratory tested for HRP2 by bead-based immunoassay and for P. falciparum 18S rDNA by photo-induced electron transfer polymerase chain reaction. Both RDT types detected low concentrations of HRP2 with sensitivity estimates between 2.6 ng/mL and 14.6 ng/mL. Compared to the predicate HRP2 laboratory assay, RDT sensitivity ranged from 86.3% to 96.0% between tests and settings, and specificity from 90.0% to 99.6%. In the household survey, the high-sensitivity RDT provided a significantly higher number of positive tests, but this represented a very small proportion (<0.2%) of all participants. These data show that a high-sensitivity RDT may have limited utility in a malaria elimination setting like Haiti.

KEYWORDS:

Plasmodium falciparum ; HRP2; Haiti; malaria elimination; rapid diagnostic test

PMID:
31630194
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiz525

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